Vjekoslav Zugaj


1. Danica Pinterović, Nepoznata Slavonija (Unknown Slavonia), Osječki zbornik (Osijek Anthology), Volume XIV-XV, Osijek 1973/75, page 124.

2. Augustin Žugaj, Terenske napomene (Field Notes), manuscript, author's archive

3. Valerija Damevski, Marcel Gorenc and Zorica Džaić, Antički lokaliteti u Benkovcu i Cagama (Ancient Localities in Benkovac and Cage), exhibition catalogue, 1987

4. Luka Ilić Oriovčanin, Lovorika gradiškoga narodnoga graničarskoga puka (Laurels of the People of the Gradiška regimental district) No. 8, page 81, Zagreb 1874.

Luka Ilić Oriovčanin outlines in his book that the stone statue representing a Roman house god was sent to Vienna by a Military Border officer, Colonel Milutinović. He also says that apart from this statue a marble statue representing a house god (Lar) was also found. This statue ended up in a Budapest museum through the mediation of an Orthodox priest, Doić and bishop of Pakrac, Hranislav.

5. Josip Butorac, Plemičke obitelji i njihovi posjedi ili gospoštije u požeškom kraju od XIII-XVI stoljeća (Noble Families and their Estates or Landed Properties in the Požega district from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth centuries), Požeški zbornik (Požega Anthology), Slavonska Požega, 1984.

6. Vjekoslav Žugaj, Terensko izvešće 1984.g. (Field Research Report), 1984, manuscript. I visited this area as an employee of the National Museum in Nova Gradiška. The purpose of my visit was to collect information for the exhibition - Middle Age Fortifications in Nova Gradiška District.

7. Georg Heller, Comitatus Poseganensis, Munich, 1975.

8. Evlija Čelebi, the Turkish travel writer provides interestina information on Bijela Stijena. In his work Travel Records he says: "This Croatian fortification was conquered by Kasim-Beg in 1544. He came there with his army from Osijek which had already been conquered". Bijela Stijena was later a military centre for the Turkish army too as it had a permanent garrison of 170 soldiers, one mosque and a large cereal store-house. Page 234, Sarajevo 1979.

9. Josip Butorac, Župe arhidakonata Since u XVIII vijeku (The Parishes of the Archdeaconry of Since in the Eighteenth Century), page 217.

10. Lelja Dobronić, Viteški redovi - templari i ivanovci u Hrvatskoj (The Knight Orders - Templars and Ivanovci in Croatia), 1984, page 54.

11. Before such stations were established, the pilgrims had a very hard time when passing through this area. The canon Raimun des Agiles wrote about it in his travel-record: About the Suffering of the French Army in Slavonia: "When we entered Slavonia we suffered great losses, mostly because of the cold. Slavonia is a desert land and its inhabitants are aggressive and they refused to trade with us and to provide us guides through their land".

12. I was given the data related to oral tradtion of the local population by Milan Vujić from Cage in 1984.

13. The name Gradiška was first mentioned in the donation document from 1295. The document says: "Tomas's Queen Mother and ruler of Croatia donates to Tvrdislav and Blaž, the River Sava port in Gradiška". I. Smičiklas, Codex diplomatic. VII, page 214-215. In the year 1330, Gradiška is mentioned as a free town - "libera villa".

14. Dr. Ive Mažuran, Turska osvajanja u Slavoniji 1526-1552 (Turkish Conquests in Slavonia from 1526 to 1552), Osječki zbornik (Osijek Anthology) No. VI, Osijek 1958, page 94-101

15. Stjepan Pavičić, Podrijetlo hrvatskih i srpskih naselja i govora u Slavoniji (The Origin of Croatian and Serbian Settlements and Dialects in Slavonia), page 178, Zagreb 1953

16. L.I.Oriovčanin, page 79. In 1852, L.I.Oriovčanin was appointed to the position of military chaplain in the Nova Gradiška regiment. When writing about the history of Stara Gradiška, he used data from the military archives that were later destroyed, probably during the riots and burning of public buildings in Nova Gradiška in 1918.

Later in his text about the history of Stara Gradiška, he mentions the severe resistance of the Croatian defenders in 1535. The Turks completely demolished this wooden fortress during their siege. For a short time in 1537, the defenders succeeded in regaining their position when, according to Oriovčanin, the Gradiška ruins were again in hands of soldiers and refugees under the command of Captain Grgić. Wooden palisades were reconstructed then, arranged in two columns and reinforced with packed earth. As this fortress had great strategic significance, the Turks conquered it again and the battle for the fortress started in 1553 when it was besieged by the Mayor of Sisak, Petar Erdedy, and Marko Tomašević with his Slavonians. Kraljeva Velika was liberated and for a short time Gradiška was taken over and burnt so as to discourage the return of the Turkish formations. In 1600, the fortification was conquered and burnt again by Marko Lapsanović and his army.

17. I. Mažuran, page 99

18. E. Čelebi, page 219

19. L.I. Oriovčanin, page 79

20. S. Pavičić, page 178

21. The Catholic population which had immigrated from Bosnia was given help in food and seed for the next sowing by the military authorities. This kind of help is mentioned by the refugees who came into the village of Mašić and its surroundings in 1793.

22. Franc Stefan Engel, Opis kraljevine Slavonije i vojvodstva Srema (The Description of the Kingdom of Slavonia and Syrmia), Zbornik Matice srpske (Anthology of Central Serbian Cultural and Publishing Society), Volume XX, page 161 /8, 1972.

The establishment of the regimental district with Gradiška as its centre was organised by the vice-marshal, Baron Engelshofen in 1745. The western border of the regiment district was the River Ilova and the village Sibinj was its eastern border. The mountain villages at the south, includina Cerkno, were part of the Požega district. In the eighteenth century, the newly founded district comprised 125 settlements, 4728 borders' houses made of timber and 35 houses aimed for the colonists. There are also records of: four buildings for the officers, a guard-house, a powder- magazine, an inn, thirty-four officers' houses outside the centre of the regimental district, twenty-six other public buildings, twelve horse-stables and thirteen buildings for the exercise of the army - "egzercir".


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